Mean systolic blood pressure also seems to have decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than those in high-income super-regions; mean diastolic blood pressure showed a similar, but less pronounced, decrease in these super-regions Figure 1Figure 2.
Open in a separate window. Our results demonstrate that changes in blood pressure both at the population and at the individual level have contributed to lowering raised blood pressure. The absence or scarcity of data is reflected in wider uncertainty intervals of our estimates for these countries and regions, emphasising the importance of national NCD-oriented surveillance.
By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. Many cases of raised blood pressure go untreated in these regions. Worldwide trends in diabetes since a pooled analysis of population-based studies with 4.
Curr Pharm Des ; 16 : — Seasonal variation in blood pressure and its relationship with outdoor temperature in 10 diverse regions of China: the China Kadoorie Biobank. Issue Section:. J Hypertens ; 35 : 3 — 9. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen.
The age associations of blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose: analysis of health examination surveys from international populations. Finally, our finding of a higher mean blood pressure in men than in women, especially in premenopause ages, is consistent with previous studies.
Associations of short-term and long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. We generated age-standardised estimates using the WHO standard population, 11 by taking weighted means of age—sex-specific estimates, with use of age weights from the standard population.
In view of the ageing trends throughout the world, inclusion of older people in health surveys should be emphasised. It may also be the case that changes in some risk factors, e. Members of the Country and Regional Data Group commented on draft report.
Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases Collaboration Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from to a comparative risk assessment.
Figure 3. Lawes and colleagues 14 also reported the highest mean systolic blood pressure in central and eastern Europe and central Asia, as we did, but unlike our study they found lower mean systolic blood pressure in south Asia than in most regions. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between probit-transformed prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure.