National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Modulation of endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery by sex and menstrual cycle Circulation 92 12 Tana, Y. One study did find women to have lower peak velocity ratios during middle age which may be consistent with diastolic dysfunction.
Figure 6. Genes and hormones: sex differences in myocardial hypertrophy. Yang, P. Even more controversial than these effects of endogenous sex hormones are the effects of exogenous sex hormone therapy on coronary artery disease.
Burgos-Ramos et al. In a study of both male and female sham and gonadectomised rats, Schaible demonstrated, using a working heart apparatus, that gonadectomy induced a decrease in ventricular size per gram body weight, a decrease in ejection fraction and a downward shift in the mean force—velocity relationship.
The second possibility for such discrepancy involves the dosages and methods adopted to introduce estradiol among different studies. Quyyumi A. Nakao J. However, separate study of both sexes is not enough. Genetic control of obesity and gut microbiota composition in response to high-fat, high-sucrose diet in mice.
The present review summarizes limited evidence about the causes of sex differences in CVDs in humans, and recent investigations of rodent models in which causal factors can be isolated and studied in a more controlled manner.
In the present case, studies of mice have recently uncovered new ideas that have yet to be applied to humans. Saijo, J. Shavit G.