All rights reserved. McElligott, N. Moderator variables: Parental care and sexual dimorphism For all species, we classified sex biases in parental care and sexual dimorphism on the basis of published data table S1. Lee Y. Collet, J.
They foraged in the spaces between defended territories and on large undefended mats of Hydrilla verticillata that were sufficiently devoid of other vegetation so as to be unsuitable for territories. They also provide opportunities for studying cooperation and conflict between mated partners when females are the behaviorally dominant sex.
It is larger than reported values for other sex-role-reversed species of shorebirds 2. We therefore predicted that body size would influence the outcome of agonistic contests, and that winners would accumulate and defend larger numbers of males. Such increased competition, in turn, increases the strength of sexual selection acting on females.
This lack of evidence has promoted the rise of alternative hypotheses arguing that sex differences are entirely driven by environmental factors or chance. Petitpierre, Eds. II, Zhang F. Smart citations by scite.
Emlen S. In a sexually reproducing species, males and females are defined by the kind of gametes reproductive cells they produce. Princeton Univ.
Ringler E. Consequently, as it stands, we are left with a concept that is at the core of sexual selection theory 13 but remains highly controversial and untested at a comparative scale. These ideas later crystallized in the three Bateman principles predicting that males typically exhibit i more variance in reproductive success, ii more variance in mating success, and iii a stronger dependency of reproductive success on mating success 7.