The personality trait of neuroticism in the Revised NEO Personality inventory, reflecting a dispositional bias toward negative information, is higher in women than men across 26 cultures, with US women scoring 0.
Together, these data provide evidence that 5-HTTLPR confers depression risk through differential susceptibility to stress, with the low-expressing alleles associated with sensitivity to the environment and the high-expressing allele associated with immunity to environmental effects Paaver et al.
We focus on major depressive disorder, including also evidence regarding anxiety and externalizing disorders highly comorbid with depression Hirschfeld et al. Kim et al. LiuReif
In this mini-review we consider these clinical expressions as including depression, anxiety, conduct disorders, and suicidality. Tryptophan hydroxylase and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms: relationships to monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF of healthy volunteers.
Possible association of a polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene with suicidal behavior in depressed patients. Hormones may also affect mood indirectly by altering gene expression, changing the rate of gene transcription, or regulating mRNA stability Ing BMC Psychiatry.
Men and women differ in the types of stressors that most impact depression risk Chu et al. S associated with decrease in women; S interacts with childhood adversity in males.
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Association between a polymorphism in the promoter region of the TPH2 gene and the personality trait of harm avoidance. Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings. Lee a , Holz Starr et al.
The effect of 5-HTTPLR genotype on women is further underscored by another study showing tryptophan depletion induced mood reductions in women homozygous for the low-expressing alleles, no change in women homozygous for the high-expressing allele, and intermediate effects in heterozygote women, depending on the presence of a family history of depression Neumeister et al.
A regulatory polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase-A gene may be associated with variability in aggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity.